Operating System Multi Threading

The thread is a workflow with process code, with its system counter that keeps track of which command will run next, system registers containing the current operating variable, and a stack containing performance history. The thread shares its peer-to-peer thread a few details such as part of the code, part of the data and open files. When one thread changes the memory component of a code component, all other threads recognize that. Cord is also called a lightweight process. Threads provide a way to improve application performance evenly. The threads represent a software way to improve application performance by reducing the maximum tread equivalent to the old process. Each thread is a single process and no thread can exist without a process. Each thread represents a different flow of control. Threads have been successfully used on network servers and web servers. They also provide a good basis for complying applications for multiple shared memory processors. The following figure illustrates the effectiveness of a single-stranded process with a lot of learning.
operating system multi threading

Difference Between  Process And Thread


  • The process is heavier or heavier.
  • The switching process requires interaction with the operating system.
  • In most processing areas, each process uses the same code but has its own memory resources and file resources.
  • If one process is blocked, no other process can work until the first process is opened.
  • Most processes without using threads use many resources.
  • In many processes each process operates independently of the other.


  • The rope is light weight, taking up resources under the process.
  • Wire switching does not require any interaction with the operating system.
  • All threads can share the same set of open files, processes for children.
  • While one thread is blocked and waiting, the second thread in the same operation may work.
  • Most installed processes use fewer resources.
  • One thread can read, write or convert data from another thread.

Benefits of Thread

  • Fibers shorten the time of contextual change.
  • The use of fibers provides agreement within the process.
  • Proper communication.
  • It saves a lot of building and thread change of context.
  • Fibers allow for the use of multidisciplinary art to a great extent and efficiency.

Types of Thread

Threads are used in two ways -

  • User-level threads - User-managed threads.
  • Kernel Level threads- App managed threads running on the kernel, the root of the application.

User-Level Threads

In this case, the thread management kernel does not know that there are threads. The string library contains code for creating and destroying threads, for transferring message and data between threads, for organizing thread production and for saving and restoring thread content. The application starts with a single thread.
User-Level Threads


  • Wire switch does not require Kernel mode privileges.
  • User level thread can work in any application.
  • Editing can be defined by the app with the user level thread.
  • User-level threads are quick to create and manage.


  • In normal operating system, most system calls are blocked.
  • An application with computers cannot take advantage of overuse.

Kernel Level Threads

In this case, thread management is done by Kernel. There is no thread management code in the application area. Kernel threads are directly supported by the operating system. Any app can be set to read multiple times. All threads within the app are supported within a single process.

Kernel stores the content of the entire process and human fibers within the process. Kernel editing is done with a thread. Kernel is responsible for creating, editing and managing Kernel space. Kernel threads are generally slower to create and manage than the user's thread.


  • Simultaneously Kernel can edit multiple strands from the same process in multiple processes.
  • If one thread in the process is blocked, Kernel can edit another thread for the same process.
  • Kernel methods themselves can be read over and over again.


  • Kernel threads are generally slower to create and manage than the user's thread.
  • Transferring controls from one series to another within the same process requires switching mode to Kernel.

Multithreading models

Another application provides an integrated user level thread and a Kernel-level thread. Solaris is a good example of this integrated approach. In an integrated system, multiple threads within the same application can work in the same way on multiple processors and the call system blocker does not need to block the whole process. Multithreading models are three types
  • Many in many relationships.
  • Many in one relationship.
  • One-on-one relationships.

Many to Many Models

Multi-model multiplexes — up to any number of user threads with an equal or small number of kernel threads.

The following diagram shows a multi-threaded model in which 6-level user strands are multiplied by 6-level kernel strands. In this model, developers can create as many user threads as needed and the corresponding Kernel threads can work seamlessly on a multiprocessor machine. This model provides excellent accuracy in concurrency and when the threads makes a blockchain call, the kernel can configure another threads to perform.
Many to Many Models

Many to One Model

Multi-to-One model calculates multiple user-level threads in a single Kernel-level thread. Thread management is done in the user's space by the thread library. When the threads calls the blocking system, the whole process will be blocked. Only one thread can access Kernel at a time, so many threads cannot work the same for multiprocessors.

When user-level libraries are used in an application in a way that the system does not support them, Kernel threads use multiple interactive methods.
Many to One Model

One to One Model

There is a one-to-one relationship of user-level thread with a kernel-level thread. This model offers more consistency than most to one model. It also allows the other thread to work when the thread makes a blocking call. It supports multiple strands of parallel microprocessors.

The disadvantage of this model is that creating a user thread requires a compatible Kernel thread. OS / 2, windows NT and windows 2000 use a one-to-one interaction model.
One to One Model

Difference Between User-Level And Kernel-Level Thread

User-Level Thread

  • User-level threads are quick to create and manage.
  • Usage is a library at user level.
  • The user-level thread is standard and can work in any application.
  • Apps with multiple threads cannot take advantage of multiple uses.

Kernel Level Thread

  • Kernel-level threads are slow to create and manage.
  • The operating system supports Kernel thread production.
  • Kernel standard thread specified for application.
  • Kernel methods themselves can be read over and over again.

Post a Comment


Please writing your opinion

Post a Comment (0)