Batch processing

Batch processing is the process by which the Operating System collects programs and data together in a cluster before processing. The application performs the following functions related to batch processing-

  • The OS defines a function that defines a sequence of commands, programs and data as a single unit.
  • The OS stores a number of tasks in memory and performs them without any information being processed.
  • Jobs are processed in the order of delivery, that is, first fashion first.
  • When a task is completed, its memory is released and the result of the work is copied to the output result for printing or later processing.


  • Batch processing takes up most of the operator's work on a computer.
  • Extended operation as a new task begins as soon as the previous task is completed, without any manual intervention.


  • It is difficult to adjust the system.
  • The function can insert an infinite loop.
  • Due to the lack of a security system, a single group activity may affect pending activities.

Performing multiple tasks

Multitasking is where most tasks are performed by the CPU simultaneously by switching between them. Switches occur frequently so users can interact with each program while it is running. The OS performs the following function-related tasks -

  • The user gives commands to the app or the app directly, and then gets a quick response.
  • The OS handles multiple tasks in such a way that it can handle multiple tasks / run multiple applications at once.

  • Multitasking Operating Systems is also known as time sharing systems.
  • These applications are designed to provide computer-assisted interoperability at a reasonable cost.
  • The time-sharing app uses the concept of CPU planning and multi-programming to give each user a small portion of the shared CPU at a time.
  • Each user has at least one program that differs from memory.
  • A program loaded in memory and working is widely known as a process.

  • When the process is running, it usually takes a very short time before it is finished or needs to do an I / O.
  • Since the O / O partner works at a slower pace, it may take longer to complete. At this point, the CPU can be used in another process.
  • An application allows users to share a computer simultaneously. Since each action or command in a timely shared system is usually short, only a limited amount of CPU time per user is required.
  • As the system switches CPU quickly from one user / program to the next, each user is given the image that he or she has his or her own CPU, in fact one CPU is shared among multiple users.


Process sharing, where two or more programs reside in memory simultaneously, is called multiprogramming. Multiprogramming adopts one shared processor. Multiprogramming increases CPU usage by scheduling tasks so that the CPU always has something to do.

The OS performs the following functions related to the execution of multiple programs.

  • The app saves several tasks in memory at a time.
  • This set of tasks is the basis for tasks stored in the task pool.
  • The application selects and starts performing one of the tasks in memory.
  • Multiprogramming applications monitor the status of all operating systems and system resources using memory management programs to ensure that the CPU is not working, unless no tasks can be processed.


  • High and efficient CPU usage.
  • The user feels that many programs are assigned to the CPU almost simultaneously.


  • CPU configuration required.
  • To perform multiple functions in memory, memory management is required.


Interaction means the ability of users to communicate with a computer system. The operating system performs the following interaction-related functions -

  • Provides the user with a system interface.
  • Manages input devices to capture input from user. For example, the keyboard.
  • Manages the output devices to show results to the user. For example, Monitor.

OS response time needs to be short, because the user submits and waits for the result.

Real-Time Program

Real-time systems are usually provided, embedded. The operating system performs the following functions related to the operation of the real-time system.

  • In such systems, Operating Systems typically learn from and respond to sensory data.
  • The Application must verify responses to events within the allotted time to ensure proper operation.

Distributed environment

Distributed environment means multiple independent CPUs or processors in a computer system. The application performs the following functions related to the distributed location -

  • The OS distributes integration documents between multiple physical processors.
  • Processors do not share memory or clock. Instead, each processor has its own local memory.
  • The OS controls the communication between processors. They communicate with each other through various lines of communication.


Spooling is a dictionary of simultaneous metal processing. Spooling means putting data for various I / O activities in the bath. This bath is a special place in memory or hard disk access to I / O devices.

  • The application performs the following functions related to the distributed location -
  • It treats I / O data centers as devices with varying degrees of data access.
  • It maintains a spooling buffer that provides a waiting station where the data can rest when slow motion goes.
  • It maintains a consistent calculation due to the extraction process as the computer can do O / O in the same way. It is possible for a computer to read data from a tape, write data to disk and write to a tape printer while performing its computer work.


  • The spooling function uses the disk as the largest memory.
  • Spooling is able to transcend the I / O performance of another job. 

All Topics of OS.